12 avr Sudan Civil War Peace Agreement
The SPLM-IO is mainly Nuer and its leader, Machar, had already committed the Bor massacre against mainly Dinka civilians in 1991. In 2014, the Bentiu massacre took place when Bentiu was recaptured by rebels in April 2014 and 200 people were killed in a mosque. The rebels separated the people and chose those from the opposing ethnic groups who then executed them.  On 9 May 2014, President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar signed the second ceasefire in Addis Ababa, a unilateral agreement that has once again begun for a first ceasefire.  Hostilities were to cease within 24 hours, with a permanent ceasefire under way, and they promised to open humanitarian corridors and allow « 30 days of rest » so that farmers could sow crops and avoid famine. Hours after the ceasefire came into effect, the two sides accused each other of violating the ceasefire.  On 11 June 2014, the two sides agreed to begin talks within 60 days on the formation of a transitional government and a third ceasefire, which refrained from fighting during this period.  However, the talks failed when both sides boycotted the talks  and, until 16 June, it was reported that the ceasefire had been violated.  In August 2014, Kiir and the leaders of South Sudan`s neighbouring countries signed a roadmap leading to a transitional government of national unity. Machar refused to register and accused the leaders of IGAD, a regional group involved in the negotiations, of reversing the process in Kiirs` favour.  In November 2014, both sides renewed the broken ceasefire, and IGAD mediators gave them 15 days to reach a power-sharing agreement and threatened sanctions if they failed.
The third ceasefire collapsed 24 hours later with fighting in the oil-rich north.  In January 2015, rival factions signed a reunification agreement in Arusha, Tanzania, but fighting continued.  In February 2015, Kiir and Machar signed a document on « Areas of Agreement » for a future transitional government of national unity and re-committed to a ceasefire.  Talks later failed and fighting broke out in March.   « Today`s agreement addresses many symptoms of violence, but not the underlying disease that has kept the country in a state of eternal civil war since independence, » said Cameron Hudson, a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council`s Africa Center.